browse by:

Glossary of flour types

Table of Contents

Milling flour at home starts with figuring out a way to do it, followed by figuring out what you want to mill.

Do you want to grind one type of wheat to make flour, such as milling Einkorn flour?

Do you want to grind multiple types in order to make a whole wheat all-purpose flour, such as milling Spelt, Kamut, and Amaranth together?

To help you figure this out, I have two charts to reference.

Each flour type offers unique characteristics in terms of flavor, texture, and nutritional profile, influenced by its specific milling process. This glossary can serve as a guide for choosing the right flour type for different culinary applications.

Flour type

Here’s a table with various flour types, their descriptions, uses, and suggested milling recipes for home milling:

Flour TypeDescriptionUsesMilling Recipe
All-Purpose FlourA versatile flour typically made from a blend of hard and soft wheat; can be bleached or unbleached.Suitable for a wide range of baking needs, including bread, cakes, and cookies.Blend hard wheat (high protein) and soft wheat (lower protein) in a 3:2 ratio. Mill to a fine consistency.
Whole Wheat FlourMade from the entire wheat kernel, including the bran and germ; higher in fiber and nutrients.Ideal for bread, muffins, and hearty baked goods.Mill whole wheat berries to a fine consistency. Include all parts of the kernel (bran, germ, and endosperm).
Bread FlourMade from hard wheat with a high protein content, ideal for yeast-leavened bread.Best for bread, pizza dough, and other chewy baked goods.Mill hard wheat (high protein) to a fine consistency, suitable for bread making.
Cake FlourA finely milled, low-protein flour made from soft wheat; often bleached.Produces tender and fine-textured cakes and pastries.Mill soft wheat (low protein) to a very fine consistency. Optionally, sift to reduce bran content.
Pastry FlourA soft wheat flour with a protein content between all-purpose and cake flour.Ideal for pies, tarts, and many pastries.Mill soft wheat (medium protein) to a fine consistency, slightly coarser than cake flour.
Self-Rising FlourAll-purpose flour with added baking powder and salt.Used in quick breads, pancakes, and biscuits.Mill hard wheat (high protein) to a fine consistency. After milling, mix with baking powder and salt in a ratio of 1:1:0.25.
Gluten-Free FlourA blend of gluten-free grains and starches, often including rice flour, almond flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch. Designed to mimic the baking properties of wheat flour without the gluten.Used in a variety of baking recipes for those with gluten intolerance or celiac disease, including bread, cakes, and cookies.Blend rice flour, almond flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch in a ratio that suits your baking needs. Mill each component separately to a fine consistency before combining.

Grain types

Here’s a table displaying various types of flour along with their descriptions, uses, and suggestions on what other grains they pair well with.

Hopefully it’s a useful guide for combining different types of flour in your baking, especially for those interested in exploring the unique properties and flavors of various grains.

Flour TypeDescriptionPairs Well With
Amaranth FlourGluten-free flour made from ground amaranth seeds, with a nutty and earthy flavor.Rice flour, almond flour
Barley FlourMade from milled barley, lower in gluten, with a slightly sweet flavor.Wheat flour, rye flour
Buckwheat FlourGluten-free flour with an earthy, robust flavor, made from ground buckwheat groats.Rice flour, oat flour
Bulgur Wheat FlourMade from cracked, parboiled wheat kernels, usually durum wheat.Wheat flour, semolina flour
Chickpea Flour (Besan)A gluten-free flour made from ground chickpeas; rich in protein and fiber.Rice flour, potato starch
Coconut FlourA gluten-free flour high in fiber and low in carbohydrates, made from dried coconut meat.Almond flour, tapioca flour
Corn FlourFinely ground cornmeal, with a mild, sweet corn flavor.Wheat flour, rye flour
Durum Wheat FlourMade from durum wheat, high in protein and gluten.Wheat flour, semolina flour
Einkorn FlourAn ancient wheat variety, lower in gluten, with a nutty and sweet flavor.Spelt flour, wheat flour
Emmer FlourAncient wheat variety, with a rich, nutty flavor.Wheat flour, spelt flour
Freekeh FlourMade from young, green wheat that’s roasted and threshed.Wheat flour, barley flour
Kamut FlourAncient grain, known as Khorasan wheat, with a rich, buttery flavor.Wheat flour, spelt flour
Millet FlourGluten-free flour with a light, mild flavor, made from millet grain.Rice flour, corn flour
Oat FlourGluten-free (when pure) flour made from ground oats, with a mild, sweet flavor.Rice flour, almond flour
Quinoa FlourGluten-free flour made from ground quinoa seeds, with a nutty flavor.Rice flour, corn flour
Red Wheat FlourMade from red wheat berries, typically higher in protein.Whole wheat flour, all-purpose flour
Rice FlourGluten-free flour made from ground rice, with a neutral flavor.Potato starch, corn flour
Rye FlourMade from rye grain, lower in gluten, with a distinctive flavor.Wheat flour, barley flour
Sorghum FlourGluten-free flour with a mild, slightly sweet flavor.Rice flour, tapioca flour
Spelt FlourAncient wheat variety, with a nutty, slightly sweet flavor.Wheat flour, rye flour
Teff FlourMade from the smallest grain, teff, with a rich, molasses-like flavor.Rice flour, sorghum flour
White Wheat FlourMade from hard white wheat, milder and sweeter than red wheat flour.Whole wheat flour, all-purpose flour